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PzLdr
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« Reply #630 on: October 01, 2018, 04:58:29 pm »

See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive,p. 6
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« Reply #631 on: October 03, 2018, 09:50:25 am »

If you were asked how many Army generals died in all the Indian Wars, and said 'one', you'd be correct. If you said that general was Custer, you'd be wrong [Custer died as a Lieutenant colonel]. The correct answer would be Edward S. Canby. And Canby died in a place that doesn't fit the image, northeast California/ southwest Oregon, and in a manner that also didn't fit the image. He was murdered at a peace parlay.

The Modocs were hunter-gatherers in northern California. In 1864, they signed a treaty with the United  States and were relocated to the Klamath Reservation in southwest Oregon. But the Klamaths didn't want them, and relations soured. the Modocs left the reservation, and returned to their homeland. The problem was white settlers had moved into the area, and under pressure, theArmy moved in tio take the Modocs back to the reservation.

The Modoc chief, Captain Jack, wanted peace. He had promised there would be no conflict with the settlers. But Modoc hardliners forced his hand. Captain Jack led the Modocs to war.

Although the number of Modoc warriors was small [50+ or-], they had a natural advantage working for them - the lava beds on the fringes of Tule Lake. The Modocs, who used that area extensively for natural resources, knew every nook, cranny and fissure of those basalt bastions. And they used them to good advantage.

The Modocs held the Army off for six months. And then a peace parley was agreed upon. And while the Americans acted in good faith, the Modocs did not. Hotheads forced Captain Jack to agree to kill the head of the American delegation, Major General Edwin Canby during the conference. Jack did just that [a second peace commissioner was also killed, a third wounded, although he escaped with his life].

Canby's murder was a major miscalculation by the Modocs. The Army's campaign went from somewhat muted to full out attack. Americans were outraged at Canby's murder. It only took two months, from April, when Canby died until June [when Jack and his men were finally all captured] to end the war.

The Modoc tribe was sent to Oklahoma as prisoners of war [until 1909]. Some were then allowed to return to their ancestral homeland, while others chose to remain on the Shawnee reservationwhere they had lived since their exile.

And Captain Jack? He was hanged, with three accomplices on October 3, 1873.

There was a movie made about the Modoc War back in the 50s-early 60s. I don't remember the title. I believe it starred Alan Ladd [I'm not sure], but I know Captain Jack was played by Charles Bronson.
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« Reply #632 on: October 03, 2018, 10:07:12 am »

It's known as the 'shot heard round the world'. It is probably baseball's greatest walk off home run. And it capped a 'wild and crazy' season for the New York Giants.

The season, up to mid-August didn't go well for the Giants. they were over 13 games behind their New York National League rivals, the Brooklyn Dodgers. And there was no 162 game schedule or 'wild card' slots. things looked bleak. But then the giants won 16 straight, and went on to tie the dodgers for the League lead [there were no divisions, either]. A three game playoff followed.

The Giants and Dodgers split the first two games.In the third game, the Giants were down by three in the bottom of the ninth. They scratched out a run, and then with two on, one out, reliever Ralph Branca threw one to Bobby Thomson [the count was one strike] that Thomson drove out of the park. The Giants won the pennant 5-4 [which was especially sweet for their manager, Leo Durocher, who had been the Dodgers' manager earlier].

Long after that epic game, it came to light that the Giants had been stealing signs. Ralph Branca, who had become the goat of the game [and a trivia question] was not pleased. It temporarily damaged his friendship with Thomson.

And the 1951 National League Champion Giants? They faced THAT other New York baseball team in the Series. The Giants took the first game.

The Yankees swept the next four, winning their third World Series in a row, on their way to winning five straight.
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« Reply #633 on: October 03, 2018, 11:31:02 pm »

See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.20
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« Reply #634 on: October 03, 2018, 11:49:33 pm »

You can hear a sound recording of it. In German. In Heinrich Himmler's own measured, non-emotional voice. You can learn that he gave three variants of the same speech to three different audiences: His SS leadership, the senior leadership of the German Army, and the Gauleiters and Reichsleiters of the NSDAP. And you hear the Reichsfuehrer SS openly and candidly speaking about one of the Reich's most horrible undertakings, the Holocaust.

The speeches were made at Posen on 4 OCT 1944, and on at least one other date. The one recorded was the one Himmler gave to his Higher SS and Police Leaders, Hauptamt officers and to his Obergruppen and Gruppenfuehrers. In it Himmler speaks plainly of the work of his Einsatzgruppen in Russia, talks of men seeing tens, hundreds and thousands of bodies stacked like cord wood, bragging that committing these crimes "while remaining decent" had made the SS 'hard'. If anyone doubted the "Final Solution" and the mass murder of Slavs had taken place, Himmler disabused them of their error. The question was 'Why'.

The timing of the speeches was key, as was the fact that Himmler made the same general speech to three disparate groups.

By October 1943, two facts regarding the Second World War in Europe had taken place. the first was that Nazi Germany was losing the war. the trainwreck at Stalingrad had not been redeemed at the Battle of Kursk. The Germans were now on the defensive, and they knew it. The second was FDR's demand for unconditional surrender by the Axis powers. Himmler's speeches were quite clearly designed to tell the listeners that: [a] the regime they served had committed, and was committing monstrous crimes, and , as servants of that regime, they were accomplices in those crimes and could expect no mercy from the Allies. In short, it was both a notice, and a call to fight on, even if victory was gone.

One can argue whether the 'unconditional surrender' plea, and the Posen speech caused the Germans to fight on until the bitter end. What one cannot argue with is that a historical record of Nazi war crimes, and the holocaust, straight from the mouth of its chief architect, went into the historical record on 4 OCT 1943.

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« Reply #635 on: October 04, 2018, 11:50:39 pm »

See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p. 20
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« Reply #636 on: October 05, 2018, 12:10:30 am »

He  was a charismatic visionary, a Shawnee war chief, and a potential rallying point for the Indians in the Northwest. His name was Tecumseh and he so impressed Gen. Sherman's father that he originally named his own son after him [The 'William' was grafted on later].

Tecumseh spent his life trying to do two things. Rallying  the Indians from the Ohio country down to the deep South into a Confederation with two purposes: create a polity, and stop the westward expansion of the United States. He failed in both.

Before the start of the War of 1812, Tecumseh was  on a mission to the Cherokee and others, seeking to convince them to join his proposed confederation. That Confederation was centered on the village called Prophets Town [named for Tecumseh's brother, a Holy Man]. The village itself was peopled by Indians of various tribes, tribes that were normally hostile to each other. It served as an ad for Tecumseh's idea. And when Tecumseh left on his journey, he told his brother to avoid conflict with the whites, led by the Governor of Illinois, William Henry Harrison. But his brother didn't avoid conflict, and Prophet's Town, along with Tecumseh's dream of a Confederacy of tribes went up in smoke. With the outbreak of the War of 1812, Tecumseh again took up the hatchet [he had fought in the revolution], and again with the same side, the British.

Initially, the war went well, with the British and their Indian allies scoring several victories in the Americans' territory.

Bu the American victory on Lake Erie caused the British Commander, Isaac Brock to fall back. The Americans, led by William Henry Harrison, followed. The result was the battle of the Thames, where both Tecumseh and Brock died.

And with Tecumseh's death, major warfare on the frontier, with the Indians, ceased. 
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« Reply #637 on: October 05, 2018, 12:12:19 am »

See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.20
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« Reply #638 on: October 05, 2018, 12:40:26 am »

Lewis and Clark reported them as friendly to the Americans. They were the only Indian tribe to breed a new type of horse [the Appaloosa] They lived in peace with their neighbors, traveling from their home in the Wallowa valley east through Idaho to hunt bison with the Crow, and back again. They were called Nez Perce [although they didn't pierce their noses], and in 1877, they proved how formidable as warriors they were when they led the Army on a dance that covered almost 1,000 miles when it was done.

It started, as it usually did, over the U.S. government trying to move the Nez Perce off lands they held by treaty, very desirable lands. The Nez Perce hunted and gathered. but they also raised cattle, quite successfully. And one of the reasons they were able to do that was their land. But white settlers wanted it, and no matter how hard Joseph and his brother Ollikut tried to reason with the whites, it never worked. Finally, the inevitable happened. some young Nez Perce rode out and killed some whites. The Army came in, and in a series of battles, such as White Bird Creek, the Nez Perce, fighting from field fortifications stopped the Army cold.

MG O.O. Howard [of Reconstruction,Howard University and Cochise's surrender fame] led the Army in a pursuit across the Bitteroot Mountains and the Lolo Pass toward Montana.

The trek was not Joseph's idea, but Looking Glass' [a war chief like Ollikut]. Looking Glass, who had spent many seasons hunting with the Crow [and fighting the Crows' traditional enemies, the Sioux and Cheyenne], believed the Crow would shelter the Nez Perce and help them fight the U.S. Army [he was disappointed in both those beliefs]. The Crow turned them away.

The next plan was to flee to Canada, where Sitting Bull had fled earlier that year. But near exhaustion, while still ahead of Howard, the Indians paused to rest. It was their undoing, because Nelson Miles was closing on them from the east.

The first the Nez Perce knew of this new turn of events, was when the Army opened fire. Both Ollikut and Looking Glass were killed. When Howard came up to complete the encirclement, it was all over [although White bird and some of his band managed to sneak through the Army lines and reached Canada.

It was the next day that Joseph proclaimed he would make war no more, forever. The Nez Perce were taken back over their escape route, but were confined to a reservation away from the Wallowa Valley. Joseph made several visits to the white House to get Presidential approval for a return to his homeland. He died a failure in those efforts.
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« Reply #639 on: October 05, 2018, 01:28:20 pm »

Love this kind of history!  Wink That and gangsters.
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« Reply #640 on: October 05, 2018, 01:28:51 pm »

Best ever!
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« Reply #641 on: October 05, 2018, 10:52:18 pm »

The war on the border in 1863 had been particularly vicious. Southern women, relatives of Confederate irregular "Bushwhackers" had been held in a hotel in Kansas City on the orders of the Department head, Thomas Ewing, Union Major General, and William Tecumseh Sherman's brother -in-law. But the building had collapsed, killing or injuring a number of the women, including relatives of Cole younger, and the deceased sister of William "Bloody Bill" Anderson.

The response was the attack  by 300 guerrillas and 150 Confederate regulars [who did not participate], led by William Clarke Quantrill, on the then capital of Kansas, Lawrence. By the time the rebels rode away, most of the town was in flames, and somewhere between 150 and 162 men and teenaged boys had been murdered. Quantrill lost one man, who had remained in Lawrence, drunk. The Union cavalry never got close to him.

As the summer ended, and the seasons changed, the leaves began to fall along the Little Blue and Sni-a-bar rivers in Missouri, robbing the guerrillas of the brush that hid them, and gave them their nickname. So Quantrill and his men began their march south, with the intention of wintering in Confederate, and, allegedly, friendly Texas.

As they approached the Missouri-Indian Territory border, Quantrill's men spied a Union fortification manned by a mixture of Union Cavalry and black infantry. Quantrill attacked.

Despite initial Rebel success. all the Union surviving troops got inside the post at Baxter Springs, and secured the entrance. It was from that point that the guerrillas began to take losses. It was at that point that they saw a Union wagon train approaching. The train was the command headquarters and escort for Union General James Blunt.

Quantrill and his men attacked, helped in part by the slowness of the escort's response, because they thought the guerrillas were Union troops [the bushwhackers wore at least pieces of Union uniforms most of the time]. Although blunt survived the attack [he made it to Baxter Springs], he lost 70% of his men. And many of the dead had been scalped, a trademark of Bloody Bill Anderson.

Baxter Springs was Quantrill's acme. The Texans, having heard about Lawrence were NOT pleased to see him. While in Texas, he lost control of his men, who began preying on Southerners. Ordered by Confederate authorities to arrest Anderson, Quantrill failed in his mission, with Anderson and his men riding away. Shortly after that, his lieutenant, George Todd, supplanted Quantrill as head of his own band. In the Spring of 1864, Quantrill rode north with only six followers. He would make rare appearances in 1864, and would flee Missouri and die in Kentucky in 1865.
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« Reply #642 on: October 05, 2018, 11:02:04 pm »

When you think of train robberies in the 19th century, you usually envisage wide open, desolate spaces, and the Wild Bunch, Sam Bass, or the James-Younger Gang. and you might surmise that answered the where and who of the first train robbery. you'd be wrong.

It was on October 6, 1866 that the first robbery of a moving train occurred. In Indiana. By the Reno brothers. With a haul of over $10,000. The formula was simple. Stop a train in a remote area, away from prying eyes, and posses, and rob it. It offered, initially, far less potential resistance then a town full of armed citizens, and gave the outlaws a 'leg up' on any posse formed to track them. It was such a 'natural' that some outlaws specialized totally or mostly, in trains [Butch Cassidy and the wild Bunch], while others, like the James-younger gang diversified into railroads and stagecoaches, while still predominantly robbing banks.

And the Reno gang? They were captured in 1868. Except for one brother, already in prison, the rest were taken from the jail they were held in, awaiting trial, by a gang of vigiliantes and hanged. They were 'immortalized' in a movie where J.Carrol Nash portrayed one of the brothers. I believe Forrest Tucker was in it as well.
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« Reply #643 on: October 05, 2018, 11:08:26 pm »

The movie was "War Drums". It starred Alan Ladd. It was Charles Bronson's first movie.
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« Reply #644 on: October 07, 2018, 12:39:11 am »

See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p. 20
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