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 21 
 on: June 13, 2018, 11:21:03 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
On this date, in Babylonia, Alexander II of Macedon, Alexander the Great, dies at the age of 34. At the time of his death, Alexander ruled an empire that stretched from the Adriatic to Pakistan, including Macedonia and its subject peoples, most of the Greek City States, including Thebes and Athens, the Persian empire, Egypt, modern Afghanistan and parts of India that now comprise parts of Pakistan.

Alexander came to the throne when his father, the true genius of the family, Philip II, was assassinated. It was Philip who had invented and perfected the Macedonian system of war, and the troops [phalanx and heavy cavalry], and equipment [the 18' sarissa, or pike, carried by his phalanx] that Alexander used to deadly effect against the Persians and Indians. It was also Philip who led the Macedonain Army to victory over a combination of Greek states, led by Thebes, at Chaeronea [Alexander commanded the cavalry that destroyed the 'Sacred Band of Thebes' - 150 pairs of highly trained homosexual infantrymen, the elite of the Theban Army].

In 338 B.C. alexander led a  coalition army of Macedonians, Greeks and mercenaries in an invasion of the Persian empire. In a series of victories that included Issus, Arbela, Gaugamela, the siege of Tyre, and other operations, Alexander defeated the Achmaed ruler, Darius II [who was killed by his own men], and took over his empire.

Alexander then moved into eastern Persia, Bactria and Sogdia [Afghanistan], spending several years conquering them. Not content with those acquisitions, Alexander moved through the Khyber Pass, debauching into northwestern India, where he defeated the King of Porus [who had war elephants, the first the Macedonians had seen].

It was to be Alexander's last conquest, and victory in battle. His army refused to advance any further, almost mutinying. Alexander returned to the west, planning to invade Arabia. But instead he fell ill. Recently married to a Bactrian princess, Roxanne, Alexander had no heir [although she was expecting]. When his generals asked him who he was leaving his kingdom to, he allegedly replied, "the strongest", and then died.

Alexander's empirte was divided by his generals. Antipoer got Macedonia, Ptolemy took Egypt. Antigonus the One Eyed, and Seleucus divided Persia and the eastern Med [Bactria, Sogdia and India were abandoned within 20 years] . But Alexander's wish was eventually carried out. His Empire did fall to the strongest. Rome.

 22 
 on: June 06, 2018, 11:58:32 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
It was the price Isoroku Yamamoto paid to get the Imperial Japanese Army to sign off on, and participate in the Midway campaign [the Army was to furnish the occupation garrison and the attack troops]. It was a tactical and strategic waste. and it may have indirectly contributed to the catastrophe that occurred at Midway.

By Spring 1942, Yamamoto was seeking a way to draw the United States Navy into the 'decisive battle' that was the bedrock basis of all Japanese naval strategy [saving face from the failure to stop the Doolittle Raid was also involved]. And while the 'decisive battle' had always been planned for in Japanese home waters, Yamamoto assumed the U.S. Navy wouldn't sail there to oblige him. So he picked Midway Island as the strategic point the U.S. would fight for, and planned a trap.

The KIDO BUTAI would strike from the northwest, and destroy any air power on the island, and then lay in wait for the expected response from the Americans [read aircraft carriers], which the Japanese carriers would ambush,and destroy. At that point the fleet of transports coming from the ESE would land troops on the island.

But those troops had to come from the Japanese Army, and there was a price to pay to get them. The Japanese Army wanted Naval support to occupy Attu and Kiska, at the end of the Aleutian island archipelago, believing the Americans were going to use a route over those islands to bomb northern Japan. Their strategic appreciation was as flawed as Yamamoto's [Midway lacked any harbor capable of serving as a Japanese anchorage as Ulithi was for the Americans later in the war]. Additionally, Midway was too far from Hawaii to be a substantial air threat. So its strategic value was mostly in Yamamoto's head.

But the plan went ahead. And like most Japanese plans , it had more moving parts than a Swiss watch. And some of those parts were weaker than they should have been, notably KIDO BUTAI. The First Japanese Air Fleet sailed for Midway minus one third of its strength. SHOKAKU and ZUIKAKU, Carrier Division Five], which were Japan's newest, most modern, and largest carriers, were in Japan. Shokaku had been heavily damaged at the Coral Sea, ZUIKAKU had lost most of her aircraft and pilots, and due to Japanese doctrine, the SHOKAKU air crews would not be transferred to her sister ship. What that presaged was the possibility the Japanese air component might be short in aircraft, particularly Mitsubishi AM 6 'Zero' fighters.

And that's where the expedition to Alaska contributed to the Midway disaster, because two Japanese "light" carriers accompanied the invasion fleet. Those two carriers contained some 30 Zeros between them, Zeros that were unavailable when U.S. dive bombers appeared over the Japanese carrier force and sunk or disabled to the point that the Japanese sunk three of the carriers in five minutes [the fourth was sunk later that afternoon].

The occupation of Attu and Kiska went off without a hitch, with the Japanese occupying two cold, foggy rocks in the ocean. But an inevitable U.S. buildup, commanded by Simon Bolivar Buckner III, moved to retake the islands, with some fighting. But the Japanese Army withdrew, with the help of the Navy before the soldiers would have fought to the death. In sum, the Japanese invasion of Alaska was a waste of troops, material, and thought [the U.S. never flew over the Aleutians o bomb northern Japan]. And it may have cost the Japanese Midway.

 

 23 
 on: June 06, 2018, 04:18:54 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by apples
Back in those days they played less games than they do now. Pet peeve of mine when they say so and so broke a old timers record.....not really IMO they play more games now.

 24 
 on: June 05, 2018, 11:51:00 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.14

 25 
 on: June 05, 2018, 11:50:01 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.2

 26 
 on: June 04, 2018, 01:03:27 pm 
Started by apples - Last post by apples
http://news.trust.org/item/20180604150452-eu3tg

Quote
* Court says state panel violated baker's religious rights

* Ruling was 7-2, with 2 liberals joining 5 conservatives (Adds details on 2012 incident that triggered the case, Kennedy quote)

By Lawrence Hurley

WASHINGTON, June 4 (Reuters) - The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday handed a victory on narrow grounds to a Colorado Christian baker who refused for religious reasons to make a wedding cake for a gay couple, stopping short of setting a major precedent allowing people to claim exemptions from anti-discrimination laws based on religious beliefs.

The justices, in a 7-2 decision, said the Colorado Civil Rights Commission showed an impermissible hostility toward religion when it found that baker Jack Phillips violated the state's anti-discrimination law by rebuffing gay couple David Mullins and Charlie Craig in 2012. The state law bars businesses from refusing service based on race, sex, marital status or sexual orientation.

The ruling concluded that the commission violated Phillips' religious rights under the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment.

But the justices did not issue a definitive ruling on the circumstances under which people can seek exemptions from anti-discrimination laws based on their religious views. The decision also did not address important claims raised in the case including whether baking a cake is a kind of expressive act protected by the Constitution's free speech guarantee.

 27 
 on: June 04, 2018, 12:59:58 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.2

 28 
 on: June 02, 2018, 09:10:01 am 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
On this date in 1935, George Herman "Babe" Ruth retires from baseball.

Starting as a Hall of Fame class pitcher for the Boston Red Sox [He also won several games in his Yankees career], Ruth established a record for shut out innings pitching in the world Series that stood until toppled by whitey Ford. But he was such a great hitter, he began alternating pitching and playing right field on his 'off' days, so the Sox could make use of his bat.

Then in 1920, the owner of the Red Sox, Broadway producer sold Ruth to the New York Yankees. Neither Ruth, or the Yankees ever looked back. Ruth, in company with Tony Lazzari, Lou Gehrig, Lefty Gomez and a lineup called "Murderers' row, ran up seven pennants, and four world Series championships [the Sox, who had won five Series before they traded Ruth, wouldn't win another until 2004].

But as Ruth aged, his interests turned to managing. the Yankees, perfectly happy with Miller Huggins, and aware of Ruth's lack of personal discipline, wouldn't hear it. With his skills eroding, Ruth agreed to a trade to the Boston Braves, believing he would manage the team in the near future. His belief was chimerical. the Braves wanted ruth as a 'draw', nothing more. So when Ruth realized he had been duped, he played out the season, and retired. He would go on to 'coach' the Brooklyn Dodgers for the same belief, with the same result.

Ruth's 714 home run record wasn't broken until 1974 [Hank Aaron]. His single season best of 60 HR wasn't broken until 1961 [Roger Maris]. His .690 slugging percentage has never been topped. He stole home some ten times. His BA was well north of .300

Babe Ruth died of throat cancer in 1948. Over 100,000 people visited Yankee Stadium when he lay in state for two days.

Seventy years after his death , Babe Ruth is still one of the most well known, and beloved baseball players of all time. One can argue that he is still the face of baseball. And he retired from the game on this date.

Babe Ruth was the greatest baseball player in history. Period.


 29 
 on: May 31, 2018, 12:04:41 am 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
It was, up to that time, the biggest Naval engagement  of modern times. It was a tactical victory for the Germans, but a strategic victory for the British. And it was fought off the coast of neutral Denmark.

Jutland was Imperial Germany' last real attempt to confront the Royal Navy in the first World War. It began when two battlecruiser fleets fought a meeting engagement, a feigned withdrawal by the Germans to lure the British onto the main battleship line of the Imperial Navy. A pursuit to the north followed, which resulted in the Germans running into the British Grand Fleet.

The battle occurred in two distinct phases: a battle between the battle cruisers of David Beatty and Franz von Hipper, and then a much larger battle between the two main opposing fleets.

The first battle went clearly to the Germans, when two British battle cruisers were sunk, and 2,000 sailors lost. The second battle resulted in more sinkings, with the Germans outnumbered almost two to one in warships. But the German fleet commander evaded the British net by executing not once, but twice, simultaneous reversals of all his ships, With night falling, the Germans escaped through a minefield to their home bases.

The Germans lost 11 ships, including a battleship. but the British lost 14 ships, including three battlecruisers. Those losses reflected much better construction of the German ships, especially in the area of compartmentalization, and better damage control procedures used by the german sailors.

The High Seas Fleet never sailed again, except into captivity, and scuttling at Scapa Flow. and disaffected  sailors, believing their officers were going to do a 'death and glory' suicide run on the royal Navy in 1918, became one of the leading elements in the revolts that swept Germany at the end of the war.

 30 
 on: May 30, 2018, 11:46:23 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
See "PzLdr History Facts" Archive, p.14

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