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 1 
 on: May 23, 2017, 04:13:32 am 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by pookie18

 
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This Thread Brought To You By The Number 0:

 
In Case You Missed It Dept.:
 
Washington Post Bombshell: Proof Trump In Bed With Russians!

 
 
 

 2 
 on: May 22, 2017, 09:53:30 am 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
They were expert riders. But so were the Huns. They were famous as bowmen. But so were the Parthians. They built an empire. But so did the Persians.  And yet, one of the great questions is "How"? For they were illiterate, lived on the margins of civilization, were weakened by a culture of internecene warfare, and were surrounded either by inhospitable terrain, or well armed civilizations.

The answer is twofold: the genius that was Genghis Khan, and the army he created that didn't suffer a major defeat until 1260. Genghis Khan has been discussed in parts 1 and 2 of "The Golden Family". But his army deserves a separate treatment.

The popular vision of the Mongol army is comparable to a swarm of locusts with weapons, a cloud or tide of horsemen flowing over the land with little rhyme nor reason. Nothing could be farther from the truth.

The Mongol Army was organized on the decimal system. the smallest unit was the Arban [10 men], which elected their own commander. The next higher unit was the Jagun [100]. Above that was the Minghan [1,000], which was the basic maneuver element of the Mongol Army [the equivalent of the modern brigade]. And above that was the Tuman [10,000 men], the Mongol Division, commanded by a Mongol general [as was the Minghan] chosen by the Khan himself. And in the field, Minghans and Tumen might be tasked with independent operations [see the 'Great Raid' by Subedei and Jebe Noyon, the diversionary attack on Poland in 1241 by Buri and Kadaan, and the battle of Liegnitz], or be part of the Ordu [army, from which we got 'horde] itself.

The Mongol Army operated in a standard formation in moving to contact, vanguard, left wing, right wing, rear guard, and the center [which would be where the Khan and his Kashik  [body guard/ staff school] would be. When contact with an enemy was made, the portion of the aemt making contact would immediately become the vanguard, and the entire army would pivot to that reality. Each Tuman consisted of 40% heavy cavalry, and 60% light cavalry. Each soldier rode to war with a string of anywhere from three to eight horses [usually five]. All were equipped with hard rations [yogurt cheese, kumiss, dried meats], a sewing kit, a file for arrowheads and weapons, a sword, mace or axe, one or more raw silk shirts [arrows would drive the silk into a wound without the silk breaking, allowing an easier arrow withdrawal]. If the soldier was assigned to the heavy cavalry, he was also equipped with a lance with a hook below the point [to pull an enemy off his horse, lamellour armor and a helmet. His horse might also be armored. If assigned to the light cavalry, the soldier might have a helmet, but more likely a hat or cap, and no armor.

All Mongols carried the bow. It was their main weapon and devastatingly effective. Like all horse nomads' bows, the bow was compact, and recurved. It was not a self bow, but a compound bow, made of wood, animal horn, sinew, laquer and glue made from fish. It was exceptionally powerful, capable of easily outdistancing a long bow, and shot a variety of arrows [hunting, armor piercing, whistling -for signaling, etc.] . Mongols went on campaign with at least two quivers of arrows on their horse.

And it is here we begin to see some differences between the Mongols, and their cousins, the Huns. Tthe Mongol Army had a supply train. Using oxen and Bactrian camels, the supply corps. carried thousands of arrow bundles to be made available just to the rear of the fighting, for units to replenish their quivers [they also carried food, uniform parts, clothing, etc.].

When the Mongols first invaded Jin China, they were stymied by the walled cities. By the time Genghis Khan invaded Khwaresm, the Mongol Army had a siege train of Chinese engineers. And by the time they invaded Russia in 1237, no city could stand against them. It appears they also introduced the west to explosives during their campaigns in Russia and Eastern Europe. They also used some kind of smokescreen [ Liegnitz] in battle.And they brought a medical corps of Chinese doctors with them to render medical aid to their wounded.

Mongol armies moved at speed. Subedei set a record [270 miles in less than three days] that stood until 1940 when Erwin Rommel did 100 miles in a morning on his way to Cherbourg [but his unit was mechanized. And one reason they could do this [aside from switching out horses] was their ability to move at night. Mongol units moving at night used vari-colored lanterns to signal each other [Yes they had a signal corps]. During daylight hours they used signal flags, mirrors, the aforementioned whistling arrows, and a kettle [nacarra] drummer or drummers, mounted on Bactrian camels.

The Mongol officer Corps was largely based on merit. Subedei, the Mongols', and IMHO, history's greatest general was the son of a blacksmith. By breaking up the clans and tribes and 'homogenizing' them during his rise to power,  Genghis was able to utilize the abilities of generals who had been from other tribes [Kerait], clans [Tadijut], or even enemies [Jebe]. He also used his Kashik as a training ground for future officers. A member of his bodyguard, in certain situations, could give orders to a Minghan commander. And if proficient he rose.

The Mongol Army made extensive use of intelligence, both strategic, tactical, economic, political, and social to sow dissension in the enemy they were about to attack, and to formulate a concept of  operations for the campaign. The Mongols preferred the indirect approach, striking from where least expected, both tactically and strategically. They were the masters of the feigned retreat and the ambush. They had standard tactical formations and battle drills, which they used to great effect in utilizing an 'arrow storm' to soften an enemy up before a heavy cavalry charge [see, again, Liegnitz].

From the rise of Genghis Khan until the reign of his successor's successor, the Mongol Empire was the first hyper power that the world had seen until Rome. Mongol armies  had ridden, conquered and spread terror from the Pacific to the Danube, and from Moscow to the Holy Land. Their defeats came from intra-family quarrels and wars, which weakened them in the face of enemies. But they were, and are, history's greatest Army.

 3 
 on: May 22, 2017, 06:16:52 am 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by pookie18
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This Thread Brought To You By The Letter C:

 
In Case You Missed It Dept.:
 
New Orleans city workers Thursday hauled away the forty-foot-high statue of Jefferson Davis from a downtown park. The anguish could be felt all the way to Washington. All week long the Democrats have been yelling for the president's removal but they didn't mean for it to be a Democrat.
 
Senate Intelligence Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley revealed Thursday that the FBI told the committee Trump isn't under investigation for collusion with the Russians. That shouldn't spoil a good time. Nobody on Capitol Hill is going to object if Democrats call for a Special Prostitute.
 
Senate Democrats called for Jim Comey to be fired Tuesday morning and then that afternoon demanded President Trump be impeached for firing Jim Comey. It's a sickness. If Trump came out in favor of Obamacare, the Democrats would move to impeach him for colluding with Blue Cross.
 
President Trump explained his decision to fire Jim Comey in an interview with Lester Holt of NBC News. During the interview, Trump characterized the fired FBI director as a showboat and grandstander. He would have added drama queen, but of course there was only one J. Edgar Hoover.
 
President Trump ordered Homeland Security to block cyber-attacks that hit Europe Thursday, blacking out Britain's health care system. An attack in the U.S. could imperil hospital patient care and halt Trump from tweeting. After lengthy deliberations, Democrats decided that if they die, they die.
 
North Korea successfully tested a missile Saturday which experts say could reach Los Angeles with a nuclear warhead. It'd make great TV. The funniest thing about a nuclear attack on Los Angeles would be the tens of thousands of young people taking selfies in front of the mushroom cloud.
 
President Trump told Fox News Friday he enjoys being president but it's a wonder why. Every day brings a new call for a special prosecutor. The Washington Post quoted anonymous sources who say that Trump has been serving caviar at White House dinners, and caviar is a known Russian product.
 
The Miss USA Pageant was won by a beautiful black nuclear chemist, Kara McCullough, over the weekend. Her conservative views during the interviews upset the media. She may be the first beauty pageant contestant in history to say that world peace just didn't work out the way we'd hoped.
 
Senate Democrats vowed to stall the new FBI director confirmation until a special prosecutor is named. The president is leaving Washington D.C. Friday for the relative peace and calm of the Middle East. How bad is it on Capitol Hill when Trump has to book a room in Mosul for some R&R?
 
The New York Times reported President Trump asked James Comey to drop the FBI probe of Mike Flynn in February and added that Comey heroically refused. It never ends. Trump should re-nominate Jim Comey as FBI Director just to watch the Democrats change positions on him again.
 
President Trump weighed the idea of canceling daily press briefings Friday due to all the press vitriol toward him. They make him look pretty bad. CNN anchors always close out their Friday broadcasts by saying Donald Trump has just had the worst week of his political career until next week.
 
Trump stood by confiding in Russia about ISIS plans to down airliners despite all the partisan rage. This is why nobody likes us. Build a wall to keep out foreigners and Republicans will elect you president, and save foreigners from being shot down in an airliner and Democrats will impeach you.
 
-- Argus Hamilton
 
Hillary Clinton is forming a group called Onward Together, a political organization that is anti-Trump. Experts are calling it bold, ambitious, and six months too late.
 
-- James Corden
 
 

 4 
 on: May 19, 2017, 05:44:36 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
Since I don't get a great deal of feedback on my history posts, I thought I'd try something different. So, how 'bout you select a topic? Can be anything in military history, crime, biography. Can't guarantee I'll do it, but I WILL consider them. Bear in mind, I do these mostly from memory [I do, occasionally, check a date, location or spelling], and I try to keep them general.

hoping to hear from you guys [and girls]...

 5 
 on: May 19, 2017, 03:25:11 pm 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by pookie18
Thank you Pookie!  Enjoy your weekend.

My pleasure & the same to you, Apples!

 6 
 on: May 19, 2017, 03:10:31 pm 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by apples
Thank you Pookie!  Enjoy your weekend.

 7 
 on: May 19, 2017, 02:21:29 pm 
Started by PzLdr - Last post by PzLdr
They are forever linked with the Northern Plains, "Dances with Wolves", and Custer's Last Stand. they were one of the greatest practitioners of war on the Plains, and had an enviable record in fighting with the U.S Army. They supplied western history and lore with some of its greatest Indian figures: Red Cloud, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse. And yet the Sioux were not native to the Plains. They were woodland Indians from Minnesota, and they first entered western history when one branch of the tribe, The Lakota migraterd west, both for hunting of buffalo, and to escape the pressure from theiretter armed adversaries to the east, the Ojibway or Chippewa.

There were three principal branches of the Sioux [THAT name was an abbreviation of the Ojibway name for them, "Snake"]. the Dakota [also known as the Santee] stayed in Minnesota. The Nakota ranged to their west. But it is the Lakota ["Allies"] with which we are most familiar, and which we associate the words Sioux and Dakota [wrongly] with.

The Lakota were organized in a confederation of bands [like most tribes]. There were the Oglala, Hunkpapas, Sans Arcs, Two Kettle, Minneconjou, and Blackfeet [not to be confused with the tribe to their northwest].  They cooperated in fighting their enemies, and sharing their hunting grounds. They allied with certain tribes [the Cheyenne and Arapaho], and made war on almost everyone else [the Crow, Shoshone, Nez Perce, Pawn, Mandan, Hidasta]. And the fighting was generally over the home range of the northern buffalo herd, and was fought over hundreds of years.  Thus the Lakota drove the Kiowa out of the Black Hills around 1775, and drove the Crow off the last of the Powder river Buffalo range one hundred years later [while they were still engaged in hostilities with us.

The U.S.- Sioux history was stormy, to say the least. In 1862, while the Civil War raged, fed up with injustice, crooked Indian agents and poor behavior by many whites, the Santee [Dakota], in Minnesota went to war under their chief, Little Crow. The war was bloody. And when it was over, Abraham Lincoln commuted the death sentences imposed on all but 38 of the Indians sentenced to hang [Little Crow was shot to death while picking berries after a year on the run by a Minnesota farmer]. At least one of the Indians who survived was a chief named Inkapuda, who would appear later in history, on the other side of the Mississippi.

Relations with the Lakota fared little better. And the Lakota usually came out on top. Just before the Civil War, a Mormon traveler's cow wandered into a Lakota camp, and one of the warriors, as a joke, treated it like a bison, and killed it with arrows.

A detachment of soldiers under a lieutenant showed up, demanding the Indian responsible be turned over. the Chief, either Ten Bears or Standing Bear offered recompense. The argument grew heated, shots were fired and the chief was killed. At that point the Sioux killed all the soldiers. they then left. One of the children who observed the battle was a boy called 'Curly'. He would grow up as Crazy Horse.

During the Civil War, there was little conflict between the Whites and the Sioux on the northern Plains. Lakota were active, however, on the southern plains, where, in support of their Cheyenne allies, they made war to avenge the Sand Creek massacre. Sioux warriors raided the length and breadth of Kansas and Colorado with the Cheyenne, and got their first taste of the U.S. Army on the southern Plains after the war. They weren't impressed.

Hancock's war, named for the U.S general commanding the operation was a fiasco. Fresh from the Civil War, the Union officers, including Hancock and LTC George Armstrong Custer, had to adjust on the fly to an enemy who:[a] wouldn't stand and fight set piece battles, and , could ride rings around them. Custer learned his business [albeit with a year's suspension thrown in] Hancock never did. But when the smoke cleared, the Southern Cheyenne surrendered [numbers of their tribesmen opted to go north with the Lakota, and eventually, became so close in speech and manner to them that the southern Cheyenne couldn't understand them].

The next go-round with the Sioux was Red Cloud's War, which the Sioux won. Highlighted by the Fetterman massacre, and unrelenting organized and persistent pressure from the Indians, the Army abandoned a route to the Montana gold fields called the Bozeman Trail, and the forts they had built to protect the Trail before Red Cloud signed a treaty, and went on the reservation. From the Army's perspective worse was yet to come.

Following a period of peace, the Army was ordered into the Black hills to survey and explore. There were several battles between the Army [Custer], and the Sioux, which could best be characterized as draws, although the Indians failed to stop the survey o the exploration. But the discovery of gold led to an influx of miners which the Army, despite its best efforts couldn't stem. On top of that, there was a recession in the country, and the government wanted the gold.

The result was an effort to get a new treaty giving the Black hills to the U.S. for cash. Red Cloud and many of the reservation Indians were amenable, if the price was right. But there were a number of non-reservation Indians, led by the Hunkpapa Holy Man, Sitting Bull, who lived 'wild' on the area designated for the Sioux by Red Cloud's Treaty, but not on the reservations. They refused to sign. So, in the winter of 1875, they were ordered onto the reservations by the end of January, or be treated as 'hostiles'. Aside from the impracticality of their being able to get to the reservations by the deadline, they had no intention of doing so. It would be war.

The Army's campaign started with a blunder of major proportions. A winter attack was made on a Cheyenne village. Result? The Cheyenne lined up with the Sioux [as did the Arapaho]. But as Spring came, and the U.S. Army took the field, the Sioux on the northern Plains prepared, unknowingly, for their zenith.

The Army moved against the hostiles in three columns: Gibbon from the west, Terry [with Custer] from the East, and Crook from the south. Crook was hit first. Crazy Horse led some 1,000 to meet him, engaged Crook at the rosebud, and but for the bravery of Crook's Shoshone and Crow scouts, would have thrashed him. As it was, Crook withdrew, but failed to tell either Gibbon, or Terry, of his curtailment of operations.

Within a week, the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho had killed Custer, and over 200 of his men, forced the rest into a defense, and rode away, breaking down into smaller bands as they did. For the rest of the summer, Terry and Gibbon followed the Indians, but never seemed to catch them.

But that breather had ominous overtones. The Army gathered its strength of a winter campaign, bringing Nelson Miles, Wesley Merritt and Ranald Mackenzie into play. And they obtained results. By the Spring of 1877, the Cheyenne and Crazy Horse surrendered [Crazy Horse would be killed on the reservation shortly after his surrender], and Sitting bull had fled to Canada. Within months, Northern Cheyenne and Sioux were scouting for the Army against the Nez Perce. And the Northern Plains were peaceful until a Paiute named Wovoka proclaimed a new religion, characterized by a "Ghost Dance", which would bring back the buffalo, and all the ancestors, with the concurrent disappearance of the whites. Several Sioux traveled to the site of Wovoka's preaching, and came back with word of the new religion, but with one important change. Wovoka's religion was not violent. When he said the whites would be gone, he mean they'd just leave or disappear. The Sioux who brought the Ghost Dance back claimed Ghost Dancers medicine shirts would make them immune to gunfire. And they preached a more proactive removal of the whites.

Tensions began to run high. Sitting Bull, back from Canada voiced approval of the Ghost Dance. Indian police sent to arrest him wound up in a gun battle with his supporters. Sitting Bull and his son were among those killed.

And the last tragic act of the Ghost Dance was Wounded Knee. the Army [including the 7th Cavalry] was sent to bring a band of Sioux who had fled the reservation to avoid trouble, and  some Ghost Dancers back to the reservation. During a search for weapons, a Sioux fired his rifle. As the firing spread, Hotchkiss guns on the ridge above the Indian camp opened fire. Many of the Indians, including the Minneconjou chief, Big Foot, were killed. It was a sad end to a proud People and warrior tradition. Almost unbeatable until the winter of 1876, the Sioux found themselves against an implacable enemy who fought according to his own schedule, and in all weather. And for the first time since they debouched onto the Plains in the 1700s, the Sioux fought someone who treated them like they treated others, someone they couldn't defeat.

 8 
 on: May 19, 2017, 04:17:39 am 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by pookie18

 
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This Thread Brought To You By The Letter T:

 
 
In Case You Missed It Dept.:
 
The Government Investigates! (video)

 
 
 

 9 
 on: May 18, 2017, 02:41:18 pm 
Started by apples - Last post by jafo2010
This action I predict will result in one more very large nail in the coffin of the Democrat Party.  This investigation can lead anywhere, and I predict that it will lead to the unabated corruption of the prior administration, just in time for the 2018 elections, further destroying the Democommie Party.

As long as the Clintons, Obama, Pelosi and Schumer are the face of the Democommie Party, the party will remain in a death spiral.  Soon the Green Party will be in more favor than the Democommies.

 10 
 on: May 18, 2017, 04:23:50 am 
Started by pookie18 - Last post by pookie18

 

 

 

 

 

 
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This Thread Brought To You By The Letter T:

(Thank you, cartoonist Rex May)
 
 
In Case You Missed It Dept.:
 
Doctors Report Serious Injuries Due To Sudden Change By Democrats of Comey Support

 
 
 

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